Alanine is a non essential amino acid, important for the metabolism of tryptophan and pyridoxine. Alanine helps regulate blood sugar and is necessary for the promotion of proper blood glucose levels from dietary protein. Alanine is involved in gluconeogenesis - the manufacture of glucose from alanine by the liver.
Alanine is a source of energy for muscle tissue and nervous system, where the body uses it as a fuel. Alanine is used by the body to build protein and to produce energy. Alanine strengthens the immune system by producing antibodies, and helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids. Alanine is an inhibitory or calming neurotransmitter in brain. Alanine is an important cofactor in the storage of energy from the body's Kreb cycle. Alanine is known to build the immune system and be helpful in the post-injury state.
Alanine strengthens the immune system by producing antibodies. Alanine helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids. Alanine is an important source of energy for muscle tissue, the brain and central nervous system; strengthens the immune system by producing antibodies; helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids.
Alanine comes from the breakdown of DNA or the dipeptides, anserine and carnosine, and the conversion of a compound in carbohydrate metabolism "pyruvate" or from the branched chain amino acids helped by Vitamin B-6.
L-alanine is present in prostate fluid and plays a role as an activator of pyruvate kinase in the prostate.
Alanine is an important source of energy for muscle.
Alanine is the primary amino acid in sugar metabolism.
Alanine boosts immune system by producing antibodies.
Alanine is a major part of connective tissue.
In one study, men with BPH took alanine, glycine, and glutamic acid for 3 months, and saw a significant reduction in symptoms.
Alanine has been demonstrated to display a cholesterol-reducing effect in rats.
Alanine main function seems to be the metabolism of tryptophan and pyridoxine. The alpha-carbon in alanine is substituted with a levorotatory (l)-methyl group, making Alanine one of the simplest amino acids with respect to molecular structure and is one of the most widely used in protein construction, averaging about 9 percent of average protein composition on a per-mole basis when compared with the other amino acids. Alanine is a product of tryptophan catabolism. Alanine can be made by several metabolic processes. Commonly Alanine is made by transfer of an amine group to pyruvate.
Excellent sources of Alanine include meat and poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products and some protein-rich plant foods.
The glucose-alanine cycle is used primarily as a mechanism for skeletal muscle to eliminate nitrogen while replenishing its energy supply. Glucose oxidation produces pyruvate which can undergo transamination to alanine. This reaction is catalyzed by glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, GPT (also called alanine transaminase, ALT in Figure). Additionally, during periods of fasting, skeletal muscle protein is degraded for the energy value of the amino acid carbons and alanine is a major amino acid in protein. The alanine then enters the blood stream and is transported to the liver. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination in the liver by converting it back to pyruvate, which becomes a source of carbon atoms for gluconeogenesis. The newly formed glucose can then enter the blood for delivery back to the muscle. The amino group transported from the muscle to the liver in the form of alanine is then converted to urea in the urea cycle and excreted.
Alanine occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system.
Deficiency Signs or Symptoms:
Hypoglycemia, Muscle breakdown, Fatigue, Viral infections, diabetes, alcohol induced hepatitis, and Elevated insulin and glucagon levels.
Excessive Alanine may lower insulin and glucagon levels, or indicate Diabetes mellitus and Kwashiorkor (starvation).
During fasting or prolonged exercise, l-alanine is one of the primary amino acids released from muscle tissue into the bloodstream. l-Alanine is then converted by the liver into pyruvate, a substrate for the production of blood sugar, or glucose. Some of the glucose, in turn, is used by the muscles for energy, supporting a long and thorough workout.
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